What are the different types of engineering? | Education

Engineering continues to thrive university majoras the number of engineering graduates has increased. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, nearly 140,000 new engineering jobs are expected to be created between 2016 and 2026.

With so many different species engineering workit can be challenging for prospective students and early-career undergraduates to decide which career path to pursue.

Engineers serve in a variety of roles, from creating, improving, and maintaining massive structures like highways and bridges to designing smaller items like laptops, smartphones, and athletic sneakers. Aeronautical Engineers design and test technologies used in spacecraft, aircraft and satellites biomedical engineers to help create medicine and technology to improve human health.

While faculty members in engineering programs say that aerospace and biomedical engineering majors are increasingly popular, those majors are not as common in the U.S. as some other majors.

Four of the most common engineering majors offered at most American engineering schools are:

  • Civil engineering
  • Electrotechnics
  • Engineering
  • Chemical Engineering

Civil engineering

Civil engineers work on civil infrastructure projects that significantly affect the quality of life in various communities. These projects include highways, bridges, skyscrapers and sewage treatment plants.

Civil engineers often interact with architects, contractors, and government officials to complete projects. People drawn to civil engineering typically want to make a huge impact on society, says Zachary Grasley, head of civil and environmental engineering at the company Texas A&M University.

“We’re creating things that put the public at potential risk,” Grasley says. “If a bridge collapses, people die. If a building collapses, people die.”

Unlike some other engineering fields, most civil engineers are expected to hold professional licenses and continue their education. Having good character and not cutting corners are important qualities for civil engineers.

In addition, civil engineering is a great option for those interested in becoming businessmen, experts say. Several Texas A&M graduates have started consulting or construction firms, Grasley says.

“It’s hard to develop a car company that runs like a mum when there are thousands of engineering firms across the country,” he says.

The median annual salary for civil engineers in the US was $95,890 in 2023, according to the BLS.

Grasley said that while the starting salaries for civil engineering positions are not as high as for computer science majors, civil engineering offers plenty of opportunities for growth and increased compensation starting at the mid-career level.

Electrotechnics

Electrical engineers design and test electrical equipment and systems used in machines, ships, automobile engines, cell phones, and cameras.

Students interested in electrical engineering should consider the type of problems they are interested in solving, says Maria Yang, associate dean of engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Technical school.

“Would you be attracted to developing control strategies that keep the power grid running safely, signal processing algorithms that process audio, coding strategies to send data wirelessly faster and more reliably?” Yang wrote in a text message.

Students who want to work with microelectronics — such as the Fitbit-type sensors that track movement and the Apple Watch’s heart rate sensor — should consider majoring in electrical engineering.

The median annual salary for electrical engineers in the US was $109,010 in 2023, according to the BLS.

Engineering

Mechanical engineers design and build the mechanical aspects of various devices, from seat belts in cars to cooling devices in video game consoles.

“Many of the electrical components in a cell phone are designed by electrical engineers,” says Samuel Graham, dean A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland. “But the tools to make that phone are often designed or built by mechanical engineers.”

In addition to designing and building machinery, mechanical engineers are also responsible for testing. If equipment fails, the mechanical engineer is responsible for identifying the source of the problem and helping to resolve it.

Mechanical engineers can work in production and manufacturing at a wide variety of companies, including gasoline companies like Exxon and Shell, aerospace companies like Boeing, and fashion brands like Nike that incorporate technology into products.

The median annual salary for mechanical engineers in the US was $99,510 in 2023, according to the BLS.

Chemical Engineering

Chemical engineers are key players in the production of items such as medicines, fuels, detergents and paper. In addition to working with pharmaceutical and gasoline companies, chemical engineers work to create consumer products from potato chips to lipstick.

“Chemical engineers generally had a very good high school chemistry experience,” says David Tomasko, associate dean for academic programs and student services at Ohio State University. College of Engineering. “They generally appreciate chemical reactions and the world of molecules.”

The median annual salary for chemical engineers in the US in 2023 was $112,100, according to BLS data.

How to choose an engineer

When choosing an engineering major, Tomasko advises students to think about the field they want to major in and then choose the major that will get them there. For example, NASA hires not only aeronautical engineers but also chemical and mechanical engineers.

If one major is full, Tomasko says, choose another.

“There is no single company that hires only one type of engineer,” he says. “All the different engineering disciplines really work together in teams.”

Consider a graduate engineering degree

Earnings a graduate degree in engineering makes it easier for students to delve into their specific area of ​​interest, Graham says. Unlike undergraduate engineering students, graduate students take several classes each semester and then spend a lot of time doing research.

“I think graduate school is a wonderful way to hone your skills or really deepen your understanding of how to impact society from engineering,” says Graham.

Taking advantage of research opportunities and spending time with graduate students in labs will help undergraduates decide whether graduate school is right for them, Graham adds.

Top Engineering Schools to be Posted on June 18 | Morse code: Inside the college rankings

On June 18, 2024, US News will release its 2024 Best Engineering Schools rankings, including an overall ranking of nearly 200 PhD-granting engineering schools. Rankings across 13 majors, such as chemical engineering and mechanical engineering, will also be published.

In line with last year’s revamped methodology, half of each school’s ranking is based on research activity, while the remaining combined factors make up the other half. US News favors this approach because research productivity is a core attribute of a department that accepts PhD students.

The increased research focus is consistent with diversifying the core metrics used to measure engineering research so that each school’s ranking is not overly dependent on a single measure.

To be clear, total dollar amounts of external research expenditures at technical schools are a reliable indicator of research activity. These metrics also reflect the American Society for Engineering Education standardized definitionwhich includes only activity tied to grants and contracts budgeted for research from appropriate external sources, including federal, state, local, and foreign governments, industry, nonprofit organizations, and individuals.

However, total expenditure is not the only factor to consider when evaluating a school’s research activity. One limitation is that while these aggregates indicate the quantity of research an engineering school is doing, they tell less about the quality and impact of that research.

Bibliometric data helps quality. How often a publication is cited in other research, especially in top journals, shows whether the publication has made a positive impression in schools. As a result, US News reduced by 10 percentage points the weight placed on research grant indicators and replaced them with the following four new bibliometric evaluation factors: citations per publication, field-weighted citation impact, and shares of publications cited in the top 5% and top 25% of the most cited journals.

The number of citations per publication is the total number of citations divided by the total number of publications for each engineering school. Field-weighted citation impact is the citation impact per article, normalized for each engineering discipline to account for the fact that some disciplines are more likely to be cited than others. The remaining two factors account for the range of publications that appear in top journals.

The data reflects a time span of five calendar years, 2019-2023, and was calculated and compiled by Elsevier, a global leader in information and analytics.

Note that all statistics are scaled, meaning they measure the impact of research produced rather than quantity. This was done on purpose for several reasons. First, it was in response to a 2023 ASEE survey of its members, many of whom argued that the rating formula was heavily weighted in rewarding schools for their size. Second, it meant that logical issues regarding the publications that Elsevier attributed to each engineering school did not play a role in how each school performed.

US News and Elsevier went to great lengths to compile bibliometric statistics for each school based on comprehensive records that followed a standardized approach. Data were derived from how publication authors identified their school, research centers, and laboratories. Specifically, Elsevier used advanced clustering technology to map affiliate text from five peer-reviewed document types—articles, conference papers, reviews, books, and book chapters—to organizational identifiers.

In early May 2024, engineering schools received a full list of affiliates and their name variants that Elsevier mapped to their schools. Schools could offer other name variations that they felt were missing.

This approach was undoubtedly subject to the limitations of how faculty identified their affiliation with the school in publications. However, the requirement to explicitly identify the school best ensured that only relevant publications would be used in the ranking. Other approaches fail this test.

For example, mapping publications using faculty names instead of school attribution, as some schools suggested, would result in the inclusion of publications not associated with the corresponding engineering school, in part because faculty may have changed institutions during the five-year period. Relying on the 199 schools to self-report comparable information about eligible faculty would also undermine the benefit of using third-party data.

Finally, this is a ranking of engineering schools, not individuals working in engineering departments. This is why it is important to focus on technical school affiliations. But to confirm that the list of publications used in the ranking was subject to a methodical approach, US News will not publish the total number of publications of the schools on its website.

The goal of the rankings is to help prospective graduate students better understand their options for improving their skills, specializing in areas of interest, and obtaining leadership opportunities that lead to higher salaries. More sophisticated rankings better inform these choices. The latest revisions to the 2024 Best Engineering Schools ranking methodology help provide a more complete assessment of schools’ research activity by supplementing research grant statistics with data on the impact of that spending.

Danfoss with the Saviynt platform increases security and reduces the time required for login

Engineering and manufacturing giant Danfoss successfully deployed the Saviynt Enterprise Identity Cloud (EIC) platform to improve identity management and reduce onboarding time by 83%. The collaboration has simplified and strengthened security and management processes for 45,000 digital identities worldwide and on more than 100 continents.

Saviynt empowers businesses to secure their digital transformation, protect critical assets and meet regulatory compliance with a vision to provide a secure and compliant future for all businesses.

Before engaging Saviynt, Danfoss was struggling with its internal Identity Governance and Administration (IGA) solution. This system involved multiple servers in different environments, resulting in a time-consuming and demanding management and maintenance process. These complications have intensified as Danfoss continues to expand globally.

Daniel Tunes, director and head of identity and access management at Danfoss, welcomed the partnership: “With Saviynt, we achieved 83% faster onboarding across three continents. We implemented more efficient, secure and user-friendly management for 45,000 identities in record time.”

Danfoss turned to Saviynt to modernize its approach to identity security. Its first step, replacing the IGA solution with the EIC Saviynt platform, optimized and secured its most common processes, user provisioning and decommissioning. In addition, with the EIC platform, Danfoss has successfully improved user access control and certification, addressed privileged segregation of duties risks, and met industry-specific compliance standards.

Saviynt’s cloud-native solution helped Danfoss manage the lifecycle of outsourcers and third parties, as well as strengthen its analytics and reporting capabilities. The successful implementation of the Saviynt solution enabled Danfoss to navigate complex identity and access issues across different geographies, demonstrating the partnership’s effectiveness in addressing the company’s needs on a global scale.

Sachin Nayyar, CEO of Saviynt, emphasized the significant positive impact of their solution on Danfoss. According to Nayyar, Saviynt has significantly improved key processes at Danfoss, leading to increased efficiency and enhanced safety and compliance. Implementing Saviynt’s Enterprise Identity Cloud (EIC) enabled Danfoss to automate access requirements for contractors and other contingent workers who are critical contributors to the company’s operations.

This automation streamlines processes and ensures that partners can easily access necessary resources while adhering strictly to compliance, risk management and governance protocols. Overall, the integration of the Saviynt solution has enabled Danfoss to work seamlessly with its partners and balance availability with robust security and compliance measures.

Sachin Nayyar said: “Saviynt has overhauled Danfoss’ key processes, increasing efficiency while strengthening the company’s security and compliance position. Thanks to EIC, Danfoss has also been able to automate access requirements for contractors and other contingent workers who play an important role.” in the operation of the company”.

“By automating third-party access, Danfoss has truly enabled business by working seamlessly with its partners to ensure they have access to the resources they need, while enforcing strict compliance, risk and governance practices.”